Lyophilized venoms of different species of scorpions, snakes, and bees
Scorpion venom contains various proteins, mucoproteins, peptides, enzymes (e.g., phospholipase A2, metalloproteinase, hyaluronidase, serine protease, L-amino acid oxidase), biogenic amines, salt, and nucleotides. The peptides from this venom have antiepileptic, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticancer properties.
Bee venom that is produced by female worker bees, contains various active ingredients such as enzymes (hyaluronidase and phospholipase A2), peptides (adolapin, mast cell degranulating peptide, apamin, and melittin), amino acids, and volatile compounds. Studies have evaluated the therapeutic effects of bee venom in treating human inflammations, CNS diseases (e.g., ALS, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s), etc. Bee venom also has antiviral and anticancer effects.
Snake venom is a complex mixture of several proteins, peptides, enzymes, toxins, and inorganic cations (calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, cobalt, iron, and manganese). Some snake venoms have biological effects such as blood coagulation and regulation, pressure, and transmission of nerve impulses. These venoms are used as diagnostic or pharmacological tools and even medicines. Snake venom has analgesic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory effects and therefore, it is considered a therapeutic agent for various diseases such as stroke, thrombosis, arthritis, cancer, and many other diseases.